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U.S. Carbon Cycle Science  Program
Updated 10 December, 2003

Technology Options 2003
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Note: This page provides access to the Technology Options report developed in 2003.  In 2005, an updated collection was published.  Please refer to that compendium for the current technology profiles.

The 2003 Edition, provided below, is archived below.

Letter

Preface

1.0 REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY END USE AND INFRASTRUCTURE

1.1 Transportation

1.1.1

Light Vehicles – Hybrids, Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

1.1.2

Heavy Vehicles

1.1.3

Alternative-Fueled Vehicles

1.1.4

Intelligent Transportation Systems Infrastructure

1.1.5

Aviation

1.1.6

Transit Buses – Urban Duty Cycle, Heavy Vehicles

1.2  Buildings

1.2.1

Building Equipment, Appliances, and Lighting

1.2.2

Building Envelope (Insulation, Walls, Roof)

1.2.3

Intelligent Building Systems

1.2.4

Urban Heat Island Technologies

1.3  Infrastructure

1.3.1

High-Temperature Superconductivity

1.3.2

Transmission and Distribution Technologies

1.3.3

Distributed Generation and Combined Heat and Power

1.3.4

Energy Storage

1.3.5

Sensors, Controls, and Communications

1.3.6

Power Electronics

1.4  Industry

1.4.1

Energy Conversion and Utilization

1.4.2

Resource Recovery and Utilization

1.4.3

Industrial Process Efficiency

1.4.4

Enabling Technologies for Industrial Processes

2.0 REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY SUPPLY

2.1  Low Emissions Fossil-Based Power and Fuels

2.1.1

Zero-Emission Power, Hydrogen, and Other Value-Added Products

2.1.2

High-Efficiency Coal/Solid Feedstock

2.1.3

High-Efficiency Gas Fuel Cell/Hybrid Power Systems

2.2  Hydrogen

2.2.1

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Fission and Fusion

2.2.2

Integrated Hydrogen Energy Systems

2.2.3

Hydrogen Production

2.2.4

Hydrogen Storage and Distribution

2.2.5

Hydrogen Use

2.2.6

Hydrogen Infrastructure Safety R&D

2.3 Renewable Energy and Fuels

2.3.1

Wind Energy

2.3.2

Solar Photovoltaic Power

2.3.3

Solar Buildings

2.3.4

Concentrating Solar Power

2.3.5

Biochemical Conversion of Biomass

2.3.6

Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

2.3.7

Biomass Residues

2.3.8

Energy Crops

2.3.9

Photoconversion

2.3.10

Advanced Hydropower

2.3.11

Geothermal Energy

2.4 Nuclear Fission

2.4.1

Existing Plant Research and Development

2.4.2

Next-Generation Fission Energy Systems

2.4.3

Near-Term Nuclear Power Plant Systems

2.4.4

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Processes

2.5 Nuclear Fusion

2.5.1

Fusion Power

3.0 CAPTURING AND SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE

3.1 Geologic Sequestration

3.1.1

CO2 Capture and Separation

3.1.2

CO2 Storage in Geologic Formations

3.1.3

Novel Sequestration Systems

3.2  Terrestrial Sequestration

3.2.1. Land Management

3.2.1.1

Cropland Management and Precision Agriculture

3.2.1.2

Converting Croplands to Reserves and Buffers

3.2.1.3

Advanced Forest and Wood Products Management

3.2.1.4

Grazing Management

3.2.1.5

Restoration of Degraded Rangelands

3.2.1.6

Wetland Restoration, Management, and Carbon Sequestration

3.2.1.7

Carbon Sequestration on Reclaimed Mined Lands

3.2.2. Biotechnology

3.2.2.1

Biotechnology and Soil Carbon

3.2.3. Improved Measurement and Monitoring

3.2.3.1

Terrestrial Sensors, Measurements, and Modeling

3.2.3.2

Measuring and Monitoring Systems for Forests

3.3  Ocean Sequestration

3.3.1

Ocean Sequestration - Direct Injection

3.3.2

Ocean Sequestration - Iron Fertilization

4.0 REDUCING POTENTIAL FOR CLIMATE EFFECTS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES

4.1 Methane Emissions from Energy and Waste

4.1.1

Anaerobic and Aerobic Bioreactor Landfills

4.1.2

Conversion of Landfill Gas to Alternative Uses

4.1.3

Electricity Generation Technologies for Landfill Gas

4.1.4

Advances in Coal Mine Ventilation Air Systems

4.1.5

Advances in Coal Mine Methane Recovery Systems

4.1.6

Measurement and Monitoring Technology for Natural Gas Systems

4.2  Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agriculture

4.2.1

Advanced Agricultural Systems for N2O Emission Reduction

4.2.2

Methane Reduction Options for Manure Management

4.2.3

Advanced Agricultural Systems for Enteric Emissions Reduction

4.3 Emissions of High Global-Warming Potential Gases

4.3.1

Semiconductor Industry:  Abatement Technologies

4.3.2

Semiconductor Industry:  Substitutes for High GWP Gases

4.3.3

Semiconductors and Magnesium:  Recovery and Recycle

4.3.4

Aluminum Industry:  Perfluorocarbon Emissions

4.3.5

Electric Power Systems and Magnesium:  Substitutes for SF6

4.3.6

Supermarket Refrigeration:  Hydrofluorocarbon Emissions

4.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Combustion and Industrial Sources

4.4.1

Nitrous Oxide Abatement Technologies for Nitric Acid Production

4.4.2

Nitrous Oxide Abatement Technologies for Transportation

4.5 Emissions of Tropospheric Ozone Precursors and Black Carbon

4.5.1

Abatement Technologies for Emissions of Tropospheric Ozone Precursors and Black Carbon

5.0 ENHANCING CAPABILITIES TO MEASURE AND MONITOR EMISSIONS

5.1

Hierarchical MM Observation System

5.2

MM for Energy Efficiency

5.3

MM for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

5.4

MM for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

5.5

MM for Ocean Carbon Sequestration

5.6

MM for Other GHG

 


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