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CCTP Strategic Plan, Final Report, Cover

U.S. Climate Change Technology Program Strategic Plan
September 2006

 

 

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See also:

Press release (dated 20 September 2006)

 

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Figures, Tables and Boxes

Chapters: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

Chapter 1

Figures

Figure 1-1 U.S. Goal is Sound Stewardship of the Earth's Climate System

Figure 1-2 Cabinet-Level Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration

Tables

Table 1-1 Federal Agencies Participating in the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program page

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Chapter 2

Figures

Figure 2-1 Series of CCTP Reports

Figure 2-2 Transportation A Major End-Use Source of GHG Emissions

Figure 2-3 Electric Power A Major Energy Supply Source of GHG Emissions

Figure 2-4 CO2 Capture and Storage A Means for Reducing CO2 Emissions

Figure 2-5 Landfill Gas Capture A Means for Reducing Emissions of Other GHGs

Figure 2-6 Measuring and Monitoring Systems Inform GHG Mitigation Strategies

Figure 2-7 Fundamental Discoveries Help Overcome Barriers to Technical Progress

Figure 2-8 CCTP-Sponsored Workshop Reviewing the Federal R&D Portfolio

Boxes

Box 2-1 CCTP Portfolio Planning and Investment Criteria

Box 2-2 CCTP Working Groups

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Chapter 3

Figures

Figure 3-1 Emissions of GHGs in 2000

Figure 3-2 Global Mean Radiative Forcing of the Climate System for the Year 2000, Relative to 1750

Figure 3-3 Primary Energy Use Projections Using Various Energy-Economic Models and Assumptions

Figure 3-4 CO2 Emissions Projections from Energy Use Using Various Energy-Economic Models and Assumptions

Figure 3-5 Net CO2 Emissions from Land Use Change

Figure 3-6 Methane Emissions Projections from the EMF-21 Study, With No Explicit Initiatives to Reduce GHG Emissions

Figure 3-7 Nitrous Oxide Emissions Projections from the EMF-21 Study, With No Explicit Initiatives to Reduce GHG Emissions

Figure 3-8 Radiative Forcing in a Reference Case Scenario

Figure 3-9 Radiative Forcing Levels under Different Degrees of Constraint

Figure 3-10 Illustrative CO2 Emissions Profiles and Corresponding Concentrations

Figure 3-11 Potential Scale of CO2 Emissions Reductions to Stabilize GHG Concentrations: Hypothetical Unconstrained and Constrained Emissions Scenarios

Figure 3-12 World Primary Energy Demand for Three Advanced Technology Scenarios Under a High GHG Emissions Constraint Case

Figure 3-13 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Three Advanced Technology Scenarios Under a High GHG Emissions Constraint Case

Figure 3-14 Cost Reductions Associated with Three Advanced Technology Scenarios, Compared to a Baseline Case without Advanced Technologies

Figure 3-15 Global CO2 Emissions Intensity versus Global Energy Intensity

Figure 3-16 Global CO2 Emissions Intensity versus Percentage of Renewable and Nuclear Energy in the Energy Supply Mix

Figure 3-17 Carbon Dioxide Captured and Stored, as a Function of Primary Energy (PE) Supplied from Fossil Fuels for Various IPCC Scenarios

Figure 3-18 World Non-CO2 GHG Emissions Under High Emissions Constraints

Figure 3-19 Cumulative Contributions between 2000 and 2100 to the Reduction, Avoidance, Capture and Sequestration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Three Advanced Technology Scenarios, Under Varying Carbon Constraints

Tables

Table 3-1 Estimated Timing of the First GtC-eq./Year of Reduced or Avoided Emissions (Compared to the Reference Case) for Advanced Technology Scenarios

Boxes

Box 3-1 The SRES Scenarios

Box 3-2 How Big is One Gigaton/Year of GHG Reduction?

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Chapter 4

Figures

Figure 4-1 Transportation Sector Energy Use by Mode and Type

Figure 4-2 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus

Figure 4-3 Refrigerator Energy Efficiency

Figure 4-4 Compact Fluorescent Light Bulb

Figure 4-5 Patriot House: Energy Efficient House

Figure 4-6 Four Possible Pathways to Increased Industrial Efficiency

Figure 4-7 Oxy-fuel Firing for Glass Manufacturing

Figure 4-8 Superconducting Motor

Figure 4-9 HTS Wire

Figure 4-10 A Distributed Energy Future

Figure 4-11 Technologies for Goal #1: Reduce Emissions from End Use and Infrastructure

Tables

Table 4-1 CO2 Emissions in the United States by End-Use Sector, 2003

Table 4-2 CO2 Emissions in the United States from Transportation, by Mode, in 2003

Table 4-3 Residential and Commercial CO2 Emissions in the United States, by Source, in 2003

Table 4-4 CO2 Emissions in the United States from Industrial Sources in 2003

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Chapter 5

Figures

Figure 5-1 World Electricity Generation

Figure 5-2 World Primary Energy Supply

Figure 5-3 Coal-Based Energy Complex

Figure 5-4 Advanced Gas Turbine

Figure 5-5 Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Figure 5-6 Possible Hydrogen Pathways

Figure 5-7 H2 Dispenser

Figure 5-8 Growth of Wind Capacity

Figure 5-9 U.S. Biomass Resources

Figure 5-10 U.S. Solar Resources

Figure 5-11 U.S. Wind Resources

Figure 5-12 U.S. Geothermal Resources

Figure 5-13 Bioenergy Cycle

Figure 5-14 Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

Figure 5-15 Photovoltaic Film

Figure 5-16 Offshore Wind Farm

Figure 5-17 Nuclear Power Plant

Figure 5-18 Nuclear Reactors Under Active Construction Worldwide

Figure 5-19 Future Nuclear Power Concepts

Figure 5-20 National Compact Stellarator Experiment

Figure 5-21 ITER International Magnetic Fusion Experiment

Figure 5-22 Technologies for Goal #2: Reducing Emissions from Energy Supply

Boxes

Box 5-1 Renewable Energy and Fuels Technologies

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Chapter 6

Figures

Figure 6-1 Terrestrial Sequestration: Woody Crops

Figure 6-2 Role of the Ocean in the Carbon Cycle

Figure 6-3 Technologies for Goal #3: CO2 Capture, Storage, and Sequestration

Boxes

Box 6-1 Weyburn II CO2 Storage Project

Box 6-2 Metal Organic Frameworks

Box 6-3 Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum

Box 6-4 CO2 Storage in Stacked Formation

Box 6-5 Future Gen

Box 6-6 Coal Swelling

Box 6-7 Physiological Mechanisms of Growth, Response, and Adaptation in Forest Trees

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Chapter 7

Figures

Figure 7-1 Methane Piping

Figure 7-2 Coal Mine Ventilation System

Figure 7-3 Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

Figure 7-4 Precision Agriculture and No-till Planting

Figure 7-5 Suring Ambico Manure Management System

Figure 7-6 Astron Remote Plasma Source for Reducing PFC Emissions from Semiconductor Manufacturing.

Figure 7-7 Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Cover Gas 155

Figure 7-8 Nitrogen Oxides from Combustion Sources

Figure 7-9 Understanding Black Carbon from Combustion

Figure 7-10 Technologies for Goal #4: Reduce Emissions of Other Gases

Tables

Table 7-1 Target Areas for Reducing Emissions of Non-CO2 GHGs

Table 7-2 U.S. and Global Methane Emissions from Energy and Waste

Table 7-3 Change in U.S. Methane Emissions from Energy and Waste

Table 7-4 U.S. and Global Ch3 and N2O Emissions from Agriculture

Table 7-5 U.S. and Global Emissions of High-GWP Gases

Boxes

Box 7-1 What are the "Other" Greenhouse gases?

Box 7-2 Global Warming Potentials of Selected Greenhouse Gases

Box 7-3 Methane to Markets

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Chapter 8

Figures

Figure 8-1 Earth Observation Satellites Such as CALIPSO

Figure 8-2 Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for Assessing the Efficacy, Durability, and Environmental Effects of Emission Reduction and Stabilization Technologies

Figure 8-3 NASA "A" Train Satellite Constellation System

Figure 8-4 Integrating System Architectural Linking Measurement and Monitoring Observation Systems to Greenhouse Gas Reduction Actions

Figure 8-5 Hierarchical Layers of Spatial Observation Technologies and Capabilities

Figure 8-6 Technologies for Goal #5: Measure and Monitor Emissions

Tables

Table 8-1 Proposed R&D Portfolio for Measurement and Monitoring of Energy Production and Use Technologies

Table 8-2 Proposed R&D Portfolio for Measurement and Monitoring Systems for Geologic Sequestration

Boxes

Box 8-1 Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

Box 8-2 Agriflux

Box 8-3 Ameriflux

Box 8-4 Diagnostic Technologies

Box 8-5 World Ocean Circulation Experiment

Box 8-6 Concepts for Global CO2 and Black Carbon Measurements

Box 8-7 NOAA Regional Carbon Monitoring

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Chapter 9

Figures

Figure 9-1 Fundamental Science Helps to Enable Technology Innovation

Figure 9-2 Laser-Assisted Welding Imaging System

Figure 9-3 Use of Synchrotron Radiation for Materials Research

Figure 9-4 Magnetic Fusion Energy Simulations

Figure 9-5 Laser-Based Surface Analysis to Measure Trace Impurities

Figure 9-6 Nanoscale Materials Science Enables New Molecular Functionality

Figure 9-7 Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Facility

Figure 9-8 Stable Enzymes Embedded in Biomimetic Nanomembrane

Tables

Table 9-1 Cross-Cutting Strategic Research Areas

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Chapter 10

Figures

Figure 10-1 Earth as Seen from Space

Figure 10-2 Comparative Analysis of Estimated Cumulative Costs Over the 21st Century of GHG Mitigation, With and Without Advanced Technologies, Across a Range of Hypothesized GHG Emissions Constraints

Figure 10-3 Climate Change Technology Development and Deployment for the 21st Century

Figure 10-4 Westinghouse AP1000 Advanced Nuclear Reactor

Figure 10-5 Coal-Based FutureGen Energy-Plex

Figure 10-6 Switchgrass as Cellulosic Feedstock for Bio-Based Fuels

Figure 10-7 White Light From Inorganic, Multi-Color Light-Emitting Diodes as Advanced Lighting Concept

Figure 10-8 Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

Tables

Table 10-1 Estimated Cumulative GHG Emissions Mitigation (GtC) from Accelerated Adoption of Advanced Technologies over the 21st Century, by Strategic Goal, Across a Range of Hypothesized GHG Emissions Constraints


Table 10-2 Estimated Timing of Advanced Technology Market Penetrations, as Indicated by the First GtC-Eq./Year of Incremental Emissions Mitigation5, by Strategic Goal, Across a Range of Hypothesized GHG Emissions Constraints

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